Virgin Mary crisps withdrawn by Pret A Manger

February 3, 2013

Virgin Mary CrispsThe Pret A Manger food chain has withdrawn its line of Virgin Mary crisps from sale, following protests from Catholic leaders

The crisps were tomato flavor, and the name indicates a relationship to the Bloody Mary cocktail, a potent and popular concoction of vodka, tomato sauce, Tabasco sauce and assorted and idiosyncratic ingredients introduced by innovative cocktail makers.  Among enthusiasts for the drink was one Ernest Hemingway.

Bloody Mary

While Bloody Mary has always struck me as a term with potentially inflammatory connotations for Christians, it seems to have mostly avoided demonology.  The deepest objections come from those who rail across the demon drink in all its manifestations.

The Cult of Mary

The labeling of Virgin Mary crisps, however, triggers off far more powerful reactions. The Catholic Church has elevated Mary, Mother of Christ, to what has been described as cult status.

A gift to the poor

Unsurprising that Catholic leaders protested vehemently over the crisps, and Pret backed down after a broadside from the Protect the Pope website.  The offensive crisps were withdrawn and donated to the poor.  I have heard no objections to this further symbolic gesture.

Brainstorms

The brouhaha reminded me of the outrage during the Pope’s visit to England in 2010 over the leaking of weird ideas to jazz up the visit. The bizarre outpourings of a brainstorming hit the headlines briefly. Another downer for practitioners of creativity-spurring techniques, I thought at the time.

Halal contamination

This week also saw the story of Halal meat contaminated with traces of Pork, offensive to the dietary observations of Muslim and Jewish religious practices. 

Religions sustain their beliefs through symbols.  A perceived attack on the symbols is a perceived attack which goes to the core of the religious beliefs.

On giving offence

I had no intention writing this blogpost to offend the sensibilities of subscribers to Leaders We Deserve. The image above was taken from Catholic Answers Forum. The story seems to me to have considerable interest to leaders and leadership students.


If God sends a hurricane, what should you pray for?

August 29, 2011

As Hurricane Irene headed towards the Eastern seaboard of the United States, President Obama cut down on his customary symbolic delivery of his message to the people facing the storm. It was a time of practical action ahead of religious observations

I was listening to a radio interview three thousand miles from the action, a few hours before the anticipated arrival of Hurricane Irene on America’s eastern seaboard. President Obama had spoken gravely of the historic dangers facing some 55 million Americans. His instructions were urgent and precise. Prepare. Evacuate vulnerable low-lying areas. Treat the instructions from local and State officials as mandatory.

An Obama speech is typically crafted to contain a rational message and a style or signature which signals his emotional commitments. The imagery implies his religion, love of country, and his cultural roots. In this speech, the rational substantially outweighed the symbolic.

Meanwhile on Coney Island

I would not have noticed the way the speech addressed the situational rather than the emotional factors in play, if I had not then heard the words of the Pastor of a Coney Island church. The name brought memories of a rattling train ride out to Brooklyn, NY for its famous Atlantic beach and amusement centers, and later a minor league Baseball team appropriately enough known as the Brooklyn Cyclones. Now I was listening to the words of a community leader preoccupied with the practical. Yes, Coney Island faced particular problems being geographically and socially vulnerable. People were preparing themselves, clearing out their cellars, boarding up, leaving their homes if necessary.

But what about prayer?

There was a pause which was filled when the reporter asked “what about prayer?” The question caught me by surprise. Maybe it caught the pastor by surprise as well. His hesitation was palpable. Yes of course. God answers our prayers.

What I heard got me thinking. President and pastor were focused on the immediate and practical needs of their people. You could say that it was a nice example of situational leadership. Thanksgiving and spiritual nurturing comes afterwards.

And I also wondered, if God sends a hurricane, just what should you pray for?

Acknowledgement

Image from internet reporting site Cleveland.com shows NBC reporter Peter Alexander attempting to broadcast from Coney Island boardwalk as Hurricane Irene passes close by


A History of Charisma: Book Review

May 15, 2010

A History of Charisma, by John Potts, Palgrave MacMillan, 2009 ISBN 9780 230 55153 4

If you like detective stories, you will enjoy A History of Charisma by Australian media scholar John Potts. It may not have been for that genre, but I found myself reading it as a well-constructed and highly intelligent ‘who done it’. It takes a skilful author to make such a page-turner based on a ‘history of a word’. Potts has succeeded by writing in a lucid and intelligent style, sticking to a brief account of less than 300 pages, with a strong historical story line.

He fingers Saint Paul, one of the founders of the Christian church as the person who gave the word enormous significance. “The term ‘charisma’ emerged in the early Christian church of the first century .. was eclipsed as a religious concept by the end of the third century…lay submerged for many centuries with intermittent appearances .. [and] was reinvented in Max Weber’s sociology in the early twentieth century”

What is Charisma?

After an extensive study of popular and scholarly texts, Potts arrives at the view that the meaning of the word charisma has changed considerably from that of its original theological context. We learn that the roots of charisma can be traced to early Jewish and Graeco-Roman cultures and the ideas of gifts (we are familiar with the semantically-related term charity). Paul, educated in Greek was aware of the concept of divine grace which had found its ways into Greek translations of Hebrew texts.

Paul gets a good idea

Or, as Potts writes, “Paul Invents Charisma.” Driven on by what Paul believed to be with a divinely-ordained mission, he set about establishing his own vision for a religion that would survive and replace prevailing alternatives. He needed what in modern secular terms might be called a clear manifesto. He chooses to do this through a relabeling of older ideas under the new(ish) term which we now receive phonetically from the Greek as charisma.

Rise and Fall of Paul’s Charismatic Theology

Paul’s manifesto was enormously successful at first, giving momentum to the growth and establishment of the institution of the early Christian church. Over time, however, there was a shift which saw “the rise of bishops, the demise of prophets … and transition from the rather free-wheeling Christian community of Paul’s time to the structured ministry of the second-century.” Charisma was to move to the margins of Church dogma, often becoming weakened by association with various contrarian views often castigated as heresies.

Thus Spoke Weber

Which is where the term might have languished, if it had not been for the impact of the sociological writings of the great sociologist Max Weber. What might have remained a brilliant but obscure scholarly work in the original German in the 1920s, was translated into and by the 1960s had become part of a popular (if misunderstood) discourse of bureaucracy and social change, including the role of leaders in traditional and modern societies. Such was Weber’s influence that it was assumed to carry with it the original conceptualisation of charisma, as an attribute of a special kind of revolutionary leader. For Potts, Weber misinterpreted the earlier Christian concept, replacing the notion of a spiritual gift bestowed on a community, to that of “a specific form of domination, an individual endowment used by remarkable leaders to command authority over their followers.”

And so to modern times

A charismatic renewal has occurred since the 1960s as a religious movement. Evangelical Christians have rediscovered modes of worship finding strong appeal in The USA, but also internationally (South Korea’s Yoido Full Gospel Church has been claimed to be the largest Christian community). Potts observed that the religious and secular outpourings with charismatic overtones occurred at roughly the same time and paralleled the emergence of ‘youth culture.. rock stars commanding delirious audiences.’

Charisma, Celebrity and Iceberg Sandwitches

Fame can be traced to acts of stage-managed achievements. Alexander the Great hit on the basic principle by taking along artists, painters, even his own historian-cum- publicist (Callisthenes) on his journeys of conquest. It was Carlyle who spotted in the 19th century how the marketplace for fame could produce heroes who were no more than celebrities with puffed-up reputations. The stage-management persists but now in a form thoroughly mediated by ‘consumer capitalism and a media technology adept at the reproduction of images, sounds and text.’). He points to the expanding scope of the notion of charisma to include places (Berlin); lakes (Lake Como); plays (Pinter’s The Homecoming);and my favourite, a sandwich (iceberg lettuce with dressings which ‘add charisma to its crunch’ ).

Teach-yourself Charisma

Potts is particularly critical of the self-help, unleash-your-charisma literature. He points to the inherent contradictions within the examples he selects. One one hand they remind us that that charisma is special, but on the other promise that (almost) anyone can be special, and rather quickly if their advice is followed. Do I hear an echo of Paul’s warnings about false prophets ? I felt a moment of nausea to learn that a so-called ‘master of charisma’ had been ‘brought into the House of Lords in 1999 to “inject some charisma” into the peers’ speeches, to make them a “little more Clintonesque”.’

Leadership Theory

The recent increase in interest among management theorists is touched on. Work by Conger and Kanungo is seen as confirming Weber’s model of charisma. Their attributional approach (we get the leaders we approve of) also warns against delusional choices and consequent business disasters. Potts also makes an interesting point in suggesting that the transformational model of leadership of Bernard Bass helps understand Weber’s proposals for the ‘routinisation’ of charisma.

Charisma and Political Leadership

Charisma is widely applied in examining political figures. Potts briefly examines recent towering figures from (Jack) Kennedy to Fidel Castro, Benazir Butto, Bill Clinton, Tony Blair (unprepossessing, but with mesmeric pale eyes), and Barack Obama. Among the mostly uncritical enthusiasm for the future President, he notes one article, following Durkheim’s ‘projection of a collectivity’ warning of the dangers of ‘the politics of charisma.’

The Elusiveness of Charisma

In a crisp final chapter, Potts returns to the historical trajectory of the notion of charisma. He starts by offering the narrative of a radical break between ancient and modern treatments. The spiritual meaning introduced by Paul was utterly reconstructed by the secular version of Weber. Or was it? Although the term may have been ‘stripped of its religious meaning, it nevertheless conveys a meaning of “giftedness”, shrouded in mystery…This idea has travelled 2000 years preserving its core meaning: that is, an extraordinary gift.”.

Reviewer’s last words

This was a page-turner. A mystery wrapped up as a work of historical scholarship. I learned that charisma is a term which can be applied to our political leaders and to an iceberg lettuce sandwich. Worth reading by anyone who wants to make any contribution to a discussion on charisma (with or without mayonnaise).